The speed of light in air is 3. The speed of sound in air in 0. An observer is 5. A student sits in the middle of a rectangular hall which is 17m wide, as shown above.
Waves transfer energy without transferring matter. You can also use waves to transfer information, for example when you use a mobile phone or listen to the radio.
There are different types of waves. Sound waves, water waves, waves on springs and ropes, and seismic waves produced by earthquakes. These are all examples of mechanical waves, which are vibrations that travel through a medium a Gcse sound of waves.
Light waves, radio waves, and microwaves. These are all examples of electromagnetic waves, which can all travel through a vacuum at the same speed of kilometres per second.
You can see this with waves on a rope and by observing: Waves spreading out on water after a small object is dropped in the water. The waves travel across the surface but the water does not travel away from the object.
Transverse waves The waves on a rope and the ripples on the surface of water are called transverse waves because the vibrations called oscillations move up and down or from side to side. Ail electromagnetic waves are transverse waves. The ocillations of a transverse wave are perpendicular to the direction in which the waves transfer energy.
Longitudinal waves The slinky spring in is useful to demonstrate how sound waves travel When one end of the slinky is pushed in and out repeatedly, vibrations travel along the spring. These oscillations are parallel to the direction in which the waves transfer energy.
Waves that travel in this way are called longitudinal waves. Sound waves travelling through air are longitudinal waves. When an object vibrates in air, it makes the air around it vibrate as it pushes and pulls on the air. The oscillations compressions and rarefactions that travel through the air are sound waves.
The oscillations are along the direction in which the wave travels. The oscillations of a longitudinal wave are parallel to the direction in which the waves transfer energy. Mechanical waves can be transverse or longitudinal. Key points Waves can be used to transfer energy and information.
Transverse waves oscillate perpendicular to the direction of energy transfer of the waves. Ripples on the surface of water are transverse waves. So are all electromagnetic waves. Longitudinal waves oscillate parallel to the direction of energy transfer of the waves.
Sound waves in air are longitudinal waves. Mechanical waves need a medium a substance to travel through.
They can be transverse or longitudinal waves. The amplitude of a wave is the maximum displacement of a point on the wave from its undisturbed position.
The wavelength of a wave is the distance from a point on the wave to the equivalent point on the adjacent wave. Frequency The number of waves passing a fixed point every second is called the frequency of the waves, The unit of frequency is the hertz Hz.
For the waves on the rope, one wave crest passing each second is equal to a frequency of 1 Hz. The period of a wave is the time taken for each wave to pass a fixed point.
Wave speed Straight waves are called plane waves. The waves all move at the same speed and stay the same distance apart. The speed of the waves is the distance travelled by each wave every second through a medium.
Energy is transferred by the waves at this speed, For waves of constant frequency, the speed of the waves depends on the frequency and the wavelength as follows: To understand what the wave speed equation means, look at Figure 3, The surfer is riding on the crest of some unusually fast waves.
Suppose the frequency of the waves is 3 Hz and the wavetength of the waves is 4. At this frequency, three wave crests pass a fixed point once every second because the frequency is 3 Hz.
The surfer therefore moves forward a distance of three wavelengths every second, which is 3 x4. This speed is equal to the frequency x the wavelength of the waves.sound waves in that the wave front, in which compression takes place, is a region of sudden and violent change in stress, density, and temperature.
Because of this, shock waves propagate in a manner different from that of ordinary acoustic waves. Sound waves traveling through air are indeed longitudinal waves with compressions and rarefactions.
As sound passes through air (or any fluid medium), the particles of air do not vibrate in a transverse manner. Do not be misled - sound waves traveling through air are longitudinal waves. Sound waves can only travel through a solid, liquid or gas medium.
They travel fastest in solids, then liquids and slowest in gases. A good model for sound waves is a spring. The red words in this web site are the key ones.; Where do the waves come from? You can almost always get a mark for saying "stars" - they give off the lot!Generally, the .
Section 3 Waves. Notes. Oscilloscope wave traces. If a microphone is connected to an oscilloscope, the sound received by the microphone is transferred electrically and the oscilloscope trace can be used to compare frequency (pitch) and amplitude (loudness).
The diagrams show graphical representations of sound waves as seen on an oscilloscope. This page contains the GCSE AQA Physics Waves Properties Questions and their answers for revision and understanding. Questions By Topic: P GCSE AQA Physics Wave Properties 4 Sound waves in air travel at a speed of m/s.
a Calculate how far they travel in air in s. [2 marks].