Early years[ edit ] Educational psychology is a fairly new and growing field of study. Though it can date back as early as the days of Plato and Aristotle, it was not identified as a specific practice.
However I must first note that there is no one feminist perspective, and hence no one feminist methodology. Feminist researchers have criticised quantitative positivistic methods for ignoring and excluding women e.
Jessie BERNARD questioned why research is conducted in certain fields of study but not others and how objectives, methodological and ideological stances are determined, and concluded that they all mirror maleness. Barbara DUBOIS highlights that what has been named "universal" knowledge is actually male knowledge, derived from male scholarship and therefore fundamentally flawed.
She emphasises the androcentric basis of the social sciences and explains that the "person" has been considered to be male, and the female, the woman, has been defined in terms, not of what she is, but of what she is not The androcentric perspective in social science has rendered women not only unknown, but virtually unknowable.
She argues that this perspective "examines how and why knowledge is not produced, is obliterated, or is not incorporated into a canon" p. It is this questioning of knowledge that forms the basis for feminist epistemological issues.
Epistemological Issues In the sixth century BC the Pythagorean school of thought developed a table of opposites based on the primary contrast between form good and formlessness, or matter bad, inferior.
In this relationship male form is set up as dichotomous to female formlessness. These ideas were still prevalent in the early seventeenth century when Francis BACON related the concepts of form and matter to knowledge maleand nature female.
BACON claimed that nature is an object of knowledge, with men being the "knowers" and women the "knowable".
It lies deep in our philosophical tradition" p. If research does not follow the "rules" it is often criticised and dismissed as methodologically flawed and hence "untrue". An example of this can be found in an introductory research methods textbook for psychology in which the author writes; "a majority of psychologists would agree that research should be scientific, and at the very least that it should be objective, controlled and checkable" COOLICANp.
This statement is problematic in that it is not only saying objective research is desirable, but also assumes total objectivity is possible. This highlights the idea that quantitative data, like qualitative data, is interpreted and often manipulated by the researcher and therefore incorporates subjective acts within a supposedly pure objective analysis.
Additionally, the striving for objectivity may result in the downplaying of validity if participants feel uncomfortable with the researcher. Humans, be they female or male, are not computers, and are unable to process information without some degree of subjective interpretation.
This starts with the first stage of research: As the process continues this is highlighted further, indeed, the introduction, or literature review, at the beginning of a report is actually a review of the literature that the researcher has deemed to be relevant.
This rejection of pure objectivity is not limited to feminist researchers, and many other sociologists have questioned and rejected the notion, preferring to make knowledge claims based on findings being corroborated by other research.
Feminist standpoint theory has been rejected by Donna HARAWAYwho argues that neither women nor men can ever have total knowledge, as all knowledge is partial.Presenting Findings (Qualitative) Topic 1: Chapter 4. Numbers are helpful and should not be avoided simply because this is a qualitative dissertation.
Example Martinez-Kellar Dissertation, p. (Individual Leader . Qualitative research presents “best examples” of raw data to demonstrate an analytic point, not simply to display data.
Numbers (descriptive statistics) help your reader understand how prevalent or typical a . Graduate Theses and Dissertations Iowa State University Capstones, Theses and Dissertations Managing school behavior: a qualitative case study.
When writing a dissertation or thesis, the results and discussion sections can be both the most interesting as well as the most challenging sections to write. You may choose to write these sections separately, or combine them into a single chapter, depending on your university’s guidelines and.
School Psychology Doctoral Program. Dissertation Outline. 1. Final Version 6/2/ Instructions: Double Underline means the item should be a title or heading in your dissertation. Oct 27, · Research results in your dissertation.
Date published October 27, by Bas Swaen. Date updated: Explain that your survey was completed by a sufficient number of respondents and that you have analyzed the results.
Results of qualitative research (interviews) Step 1 – Introduce the relevant research/5(18).